Skip to content


graphic with information about the Madison Ave gallery walk, May 15

ARTnews Madison Ave Spring Gallery Walk

May 15, 2021

We are pleased to be participating in ARTnews Masison Ave Spring Gallery Walk on Saturday, May 15.  Please register here

collage work on paper


VISITING GUIDELINES: Van Doren Waxter’s exhibitions are open to the public by appointment with visits limited to one to eight people at a time. Walk-in visitors are welcome with space allowance. The public is encouraged to schedule a visit here. Safety precautions are taken in accordance with CDC guidelines to ensure the health and safety of staff and guests.



photo of a man standing in front of stretcher bars

Van Doren Waxter Represents the Milton Resnick Foundation

April 2021

Van Doren Waxter is pleased to announce exclusive representation of the work of Milton Resnick (1917-2004). A first-generation Abstract Expressionist who is most known today for his later monumental, quasi-monochromatic paintings remarkable for their immensity and materiality. These works are held in public collections, including the Museum of Modern Art, New York, the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., the Smithsonian Institute: Museum of American Art, Washington, D.C, the National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, and the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York.


A one-person exhibition will take place in 2022 at the gallery’s historic 1907 townhouse.

The gallery will seek to develop a wider audience for Resnick’s art and life in collaboration with The Milton Resnick and Pat Passlof Foundation, which exhibits, publishes, and preserves his work in the artist’s former home and studio on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. The Foundation opened to the public in 2018 with a fifty-year retrospective survey of his work.

In a decades long career characterized by revolutions, departures, and an obsession with paint—“paint, that’s all I have”—his practice included abstractions in the 1950s of interlocking forms that eventually became more rectangular and diagrammatic, to a focus on brushstroke in the 1960s, to an elimination of all line and imagery and all out embrace of scale, density, and surface from the 1960s to the 1980s, and finally a turn to figuration in the 1990s.

“We feel very honored to represent the very powerful, phenomenal work of Milton Resnick,” said Dorsey Waxter. “Resnick’s practice was continually evolving and he was deeply committed to oil paint and process. We look forward to introducing new audiences to the legendary artist of intensity and sublimity.”


“We know and respect Dorsey Waxter and John Van Doren,” said Susan Reynolds, executive director of the Milton Resnick and Pat Passlof Foundation, who added that the gallery will be invaluable in exploring the artworks which the artist produced in the late 1970s and 1980s, including the immense works that include the Elephant (1979-1983) paintings. “The range and diversity of the Van Doren Waxter program, their depth of knowledge and work with post war American Abstractionists and estates is very important to us.”

The representation will include a special and ongoing relationship with Miguel Abreu Gallery located at 36 Orchard Street and 88 Eldridge Street directly across from the artist’s foundation. In 2018, the gallery mounted a large-scale exhibition of the artist’s paintings on paper.


Courtesy the Milton Resnick and Pat Passlof Foundation, New York
©Robert A Ellison Jr.

large abstract grey painting by James Brooks

James Brooks

A Painting is a Real Thing

August 6 – October 23, 2022

The Parrish Art Museum is organizing James Brooks: A Painting is a Real Thing, a comprehensive survey of significant scope comprised of some fifty paintings drawn from public and private U.S. collections. Throughout his long and prolific career James Brooks (1906–1992) advocated, with a messianic zeal, the primacy of paint—what happens on the surface—as the only authentic “subject” of a work of art. He embraced experimentation and shied away from developing any dominant method or style in order to avoid, as he once put it, “one’s own pictorial clichés.” Color alone remains the consistent and essential component in Brooks’s work. James Brooks: A Painting is a Real Thing will be shown at the Parrish from August 8 through October 25, 2020. 

Richard Diebenkorn at the Cantor

Richard Diebenkorn at the Cantor

September 4, 2019 - ongoing

See an intimate and interactive installation of famed Bay Area artist Richard Diebenkorn’s paintings and sketchbooks that shed light on the artist’s process, including his shift from figurative to more abstract work.

Crossroads: Carnegie Museum of Art’s Collection, 1945 to Now

Crossroads: Carnegie Museum of Art’s Collection, 1945 to Now

Hedda Sterne & Moira Dryer

June 22, 2018 - November 21, 2021

Crossroads mines our collection for stories that resonate today by highlighting the critical role of the artist in everyday life.


This complete reinstallation of our postwar and contemporary art galleries places the work of artists at the intersection of history and society. We’re also bringing dozens of rarely and never-before-shown works out of storage. Curator Eric Crosby finds pockets of depth, diversity, and eccentricities, organizing the galleries in a series of “chapters.”


Crossroads is organized by Eric Crosby, The Richard Armstrong Curator of Modern and Contemporary Art.

orange abstract painting

Affinities for Abstraction: Women Artists on Eastern Long Island, 1950-2020

Hedda Sterne | Parrish Art Museum

May 2–July 18, 2021

Affinities for Abstraction: Women Artists on Eastern Long Island, 1950-2020, is a freewheeling look at the work of 42 artists who have called the Hamptons home for a week, a season, or a lifetime. Organized by the Museum’s Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Chief Curator Alicia G. Longwell, Ph.D., the exhibition tells the sweeping story of artists with ties to the region who have expanded and exploited the language of abstraction.


Hedda Sterne, Road No. 11, 1957, Oil, spray paint on canvas, 60 in. x 42 in. 

© The Hedda Sterne Foundation, Inc. / Licensed by ARS, New York, NY



purple ceramic vessel

Artifices instables Stories of ceramics

Brian Rochefort | Nouveau Musée National de Monaco

September 18, 2020 - February 21, 2021

Cristiano Raimondi, guest curator at the NMNM for this exhibition, chose to investigate ceramics as a heterogenic and unstable material, able to tell transversal stories. Through a selection of more than 120 pieces by international artists, the curator envisioned a set-up which is a crossover between atelier and a cabinet of curiosities. 

drawing of a shirtless man

David Park and His Circle The Drawing Sessions

Richard Diebenkorn

October 4, 2020 – January 18, 2021

Organized to accompany David Park: A Retrospective, this exhibition examines the weekly figure drawing sessions initiated by Park, Elmer Bischoff, and Richard Diebenkorn in 1953. These artists’ gatherings, which expanded during the decade to include additional friends and colleagues, were held in each other’s Bay Area studios with hired models, both male and female. Together, the artists focused on mastering the human form by repeatedly drawing models in various poses, and experimenting with both traditional and alternative materials. The show features thirty-three drawings and two sketchbooks that capture the dynamic and collegial nature of these sessions.

painting made with beads and string

Making Knowing: Craft in Art, 1950–2019

Alan Shields | Whitney Museum of American Art

November 22, 2019–January 2021

Making Knowing: Craft in Art, 1950–2019 foregrounds how visual artists have explored the materials, methods, and strategies of craft over the past seven decades. Some expand techniques with long histories, such as weaving, sewing, or pottery, while others experiment with textiles, thread, clay, beads, and glass, among other mediums. The traces of the artists’ hands-on engagement with their materials invite viewers to imagine how it might feel to make each work.


While artists’ reasons for taking up craft range widely, many aim to subvert prevalent standards of so-called “fine art,” often in direct response to the politics of their time. In challenging accepted ideas of taste—whether by embracing the decorative or turning away from traditional painting and sculpture in favor of functional items like bowls or blankets—these artists reclaim visual languages that have typically been coded as feminine, domestic, or vernacular. By highlighting marginalized modes of artistic production, these artists challenge the power structures that determine artistic value.


This exhibition provides new perspectives on subjects that have been central to artists, including abstraction, popular culture, feminist and queer aesthetics, and recent explorations of identity and relationships to place. Together, the works demonstrate that craft-informed techniques of making carry their own kind of knowledge, one that is crucial to a more complete understanding of the history and potential of art.

hanging painting by Alan Shields

With Pleasure: Pattern and Decoration in American Art 1972–1985

Alan Shields | Museum of Contemporary Art Los Angeles & Hessel Museum of Art

With Pleasure: Pattern and Decoration in American Art 1972–1985 is the first full-scale scholarly survey of this groundbreaking American art movement, encompassing works in painting, sculpture, collage, ceramics, installation art, and performance documentation. Covering the years 1972 to 1985 and featuring approximately fifty artists from across the United States, the exhibition examines the Pattern and Decoration movement’s defiant embrace of forms traditionally coded as feminine, domestic, ornamental, or craft-based and thought to be categorically inferior to fine art. Pattern and Decoration artists gleaned motifs, color schemes, and materials from the decorative arts, freely appropriating floral, arabesque, and patchwork patterns and arranging them in intricate, almost dizzying, and sometimes purposefully gaudy designs. Their work across mediums pointedly evokes a pluralistic array of sources from Islamic architectural ornamentation to American quilts, wallpaper, Persian carpets, and domestic embroidery. Pattern and Decoration artists practiced a postmodernist art of appropriation borne of love for its sources rather than the cynical detachment that became de rigueur in the international art world of the 1980s. This exhibition traces the movement’s broad reach in postwar American art by including artists widely regarded as comprising the core of the movement, such as Valerie Jaudon, Joyce Kozloff, Robert Kushner, Kim MacConnel, and Miriam Schapiro; artists whose contributions to Pattern and Decoration have been underrecognized, such as Merion Estes, Dee Shapiro, Kendall Shaw, and Takako Yamaguchi; as well as artists who are not normally considered in the context of Pattern and Decoration, such as Emma Amos, Billy Al Bengston, Al Loving, and Betty Woodman. Though little studied today, the Pattern and Decoration movement was institutionally recognized, critically received, and commercially successful from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s. The overwhelming preponderance of craft-based practices and unabashedly decorative sensibilities in art of the present-day point to an influential P&D legacy that is ripe for consideration. 


MOCA LA: October 27, 2019 – May 18, 2020

Hessel Museum of Art: June 27 – November 28, 2020


Ceramic artwork by Brian Rochefort

Cool Clay

Brian Rochefort | Crocker Art Museum

July 21, 2019 — July 19, 2020

From raw textures to meticulous details, to glazes bursting with color, the works in Cool Clay represent one of the most exciting and expansive fields of contemporary art. This exhibition highlights a selection of notable acquisitions that strengthen the Crocker Art Museum’s ceramics holdings in both diversity and scope, the majority by artists not previously represented in the permanent collection. These include influential figures like Rudy Autio, Jun Kaneko, Edwin Scheier, and Akio Takamori, as well as more recent leaders like Zemer Peled, Brian Rochefort, and Dirk Staschke. Although the artists pursue a great variety of approaches and techniques, each embraces the experimental and playful sensibility this versatile medium engenders. Spanning six decades of studio practice, this exhibition celebrates the ground-breaking achievements of 20th-century ceramists as well as those who today continue to reimagine the possibilities of working in clay.

image of a man on an ladder in front of a painting in progress

Van Doren Waxter represents the Jack Tworkov Estate

June 2020

Van Doren Waxter is pleased to announce exclusive representation of the Estate of Jack Tworkov. An artist at the forefront of American painting for seven decades, Jack Tworkov (1900-1982) forged a disciplined aesthetic through techniques, transitions, and variations on compositions that score an artistic career which continues today to be avidly discussed and celebrated—the one constant being Tworkov’s gestural “mark.”


Van Doren Waxter will debut the gallery’s new online private viewing space with a signature painting in Tworkov’s oeuvre, Ending (1967-72). This painting that has not been exhibited nor offered publicly since 1991. The gallery aims to cultivate broader national and international audiences for Tworkov’s art and ideas, while advancing scholarship focused on the artist’s life and work. The announcement follows the artist’s inclusion in Epic Abstraction (2019-2020) at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Artistic License (2019) at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, and Pollock e la Scuola di New York (2018) at the Complesso del Vittoriano, Rome, Italy.


An émigré to America from Russian occupied Poland in 1913, Jack Tworkov found refuge in Greenwich Village.  His intellect and commitment to abstraction established him as a member of the post-war avant-garde and charter member of the intellectual Eighth Street Club.  His was a long search for an abstract, painterly “mark’’ motived by his own conflict with self-portrayal in painting. This reflection fueled a full vigorous embrace and thrust the began in the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, and grew more reductive, meditative, and analytic mark by the 1970s and 1980s.


A noted intellectual recognized for his affinity for cross-disciplinary interaction, Tworkov formed lasting friendships with composers John Cage, Morton Feldman, Stefan Wolpe, choreographer Merce Cunningham, poets Robert Creeley, Charles Olson, and Stanley Kunitz, and painters Willem de Kooning, and Franz Kline. As a respected teacher, he accepted invitations at institutions across American including American University (1948-51) the legendary Black Mountain College (1952) and most notably the position of Chair at the Yale School of Art and Architecture (1963-69) where his students included painters Jennifer Bartlett, Chuck Close, Rackstraw Downes, Brice Marden, William T. Williams, and the sculptor Richard Serra.


“We are honored to be entrusted with the work of Jack Tworkov, who was devoted to painting,” said Dorsey Waxter who knew the artist in his lifetime, worked with the artist’s estate while at the André Emmerich Gallery, and recently highlighted Trace (1966), an historically significant, gestural canvas at Frieze Masters London (2019).  “Tworkov was endlessly experimental and never content with a ‘style’.  There is a renewal of interest in the artist, and we look forward to revealing the range and fullness of his compelling oeuvre.”


“This is an exciting moment for the Estate to align itself with Van Doren Waxter’s distinguished and committed engagement with American abstraction,” says Jason Andrew, who has been at the helm of the Estate since 2004, “There are many facets of Tworkov’s long career that have yet to be explored, and I can’t imagine a more dynamic partner in this exploration.”


Jack Tworkov’s life work was the subject of the first ever-online catalogue raisonné project launch in 2009.  Edited by Jason Andrew for the Estate of Jack Tworkov and designed in collaboration with PanOpticon, this project continues to be a valuable resource promoting the legacy of the artist.


To learn more about the artist visit:



Portrait of Jack Tworkov in front of his painting P73 #3 (in progress), Provincetown, 1973.

Photo: Arnold Newman / © 2020 Arnold Newman Properties/Getty Images 

double headed sculpture


Sarah Peters | The Institute of Fine Arts at NYU

October 2 - Spring 2020

The Institute of Fine Arts at NYU is pleased to present its fall show, Glossolalists, featuring work by the New York-based artist Sarah Peters. The exhibition proudly continues a commitment to present the work of mid-career women artists at the Institute’s James B. Duke House. Peters’ figurative art emerges from her interest in the formal sculptural practices of distinct historical periods, from ancient to modern, resulting in a unique visual language. Set within the building’s beaux-arts interior, her sculptures resonate with the Great Hall’s marble floors, gilded wrought iron details, and Neoclassical statues.

two green painted panels


Back in Business

February 4 - April 19, 2020

Featuring approximately 30 of her richly textured and color saturated paintings and sculptures, this is the first comprehensive museum exhibition to consider the early work of Moira Dryer (c. 1957, Toronto, Canada; d. 1992, New York City). From her beginnings in the early 1980s until her death, Dryer pursued a line of work in dialogue with modernist painting and abstraction while in consideration of more contemporary themes. Before devoting herself full-time to painting, Dryer worked for years as a set designer for the avant-garde theater company Mabou Mines, an experience that influenced her painting and the way she spoke about her work. This exhibition considers Dryer’s development as her work progresses from recognizable theater references such as curtains and spatial representations to abstract portraits that begin to move toward sculpture. Dryer infused her works with a level of pathos that allowed her to play with stillness and animation, reference and abstraction, and real and represented space. The exhibition also includes a collection of notes, drawings, and photographs from the artist’s archive that provide a historical context firmly placing Dryer at the center of the conversation regarding painting in the 1980s and 90s.


yellow abstract work on paper

Moira Dryer: Yours for the Asking

Greater Reston Arts Center

January 18– April 18, 2020

GRACE will present a selection of twelve works by artist Moira Dryer (b. 1957, Toronto, Ontario; d. 1992, New York, New York), primarily known for her large abstract paintings on wood panel. This exhibition will provide an intimate look at the artist’s practice through works given as gifts to friends and family, many never previously shown publicly. For Jimmy incorporates a seed spreader found on Jimmy’s family farm; the green field of paint is punctuated by Dryer’s signature blotches referencing the seeding of the land and the artist’s growing cancer. Dryer’s final work still in the studio upon her death will also be included in the exhibition alongside ephemera from her studio. The title is taken from the artist’s archive in recognition of her generosity, confidence, and singular voice.

abstract painting of an engine

Hedda Sterne: Imagination and Machine

Des Moines Art Center

January 10 - April 15, 2020

In 1961, Fortune magazine commissioned the Romanian-born, mid-20th-century artist Hedda Sterne to produce paintings that characterize her impressions of John Deere tractor parts. The magazine chose Sterne based on a body of work she completed in the 1950s that focused on the anthropomorphic qualities of machines.


Sterne visited the company’s factories in both Moline, Illinois and Waterloo, Iowa and became interested in the vital importance of valves, transmissions, and engine parts of the tractors. The seven paintings she made for the commission depict the gritty, staid, and isolated machine parts as a way to “understand not how they work, but how they are.” The paintings — made with paint brushes, oil sticks, and a spray gun — were illustrated in the July issue of Fortune that year, and purchased by John Deere for the company’s collection.


This exhibition features all seven paintings, which have never been shown together outside Moline, Illinois. A brochure accompanying the exhibition will feature an essay by Shaina Larrivee, the director of the Hedda Sterne Foundation.


Hedda Sterne: Imagination and Machine is organized by Assistant Curator Jared Ledesma.

Artistic License: Six Takes on the Guggenheim Collection

Artistic License: Six Takes on the Guggenheim Collection

Alan Shields | Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum

May 24, 2019–January 12, 2020

The first-ever artist-curated exhibition mounted at the Guggenheim celebrates the museum’s extensive collection of modern and contemporary art. Curated by Cai Guo-Qiang, Paul Chan, Jenny Holzer, Julie Mehretu, Richard Prince, and Carrie Mae Weems—artists who each have had influential solo shows at the museum—Artistic License brings together both well-known and rarely seen works from the turn of the century to 1980.


Each artist was invited to make selections to shape a discrete presentation, one on each of the six levels of the rotunda. With the museum’s curators and conservators, they searched through the collection in storage, encountering renowned masterpieces while also finding singular contributions by less-prominent figures. The resulting exhibition presents nearly 300 paintings, sculptures, works on paper, and installations, some never before shown, that engage with the cultural discourses of their time—from the utopian aspirations of early modernism to the formal explorations of mid-century abstraction and the sociopolitical debates of the 1960s and ’70s. On view during the 60th anniversary of the Guggenheim’s iconic Frank Lloyd Wright–designed building, Artistic License honors the museum’s artist-centric ethos and commitment to art as a force for upending expectations and expanding perspectives.

abstract spray painting

The Whitney’s Collection: Selections from 1900 to 1965

Hedda Sterne | Whitney Museum of American Art

June 28, 2019 - ongoing

This exhibition of more than 120 works, drawn entirely from the Whitney’s collection, is inspired by the founding history of the Museum. The Whitney was established in 1930 by Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, a sculptor and patron, to champion the work of living American artists. Mrs. Whitney recognized both the importance of contemporary American art and the need to support the artists who made it. The collection she assembled foregrounded how artists uniquely reveal the complexity and beauty of American life.


The exhibition begins with a gallery devoted to selections from the Museum’s founding collection, followed by galleries that weave their way through major art historical movements and genres. Key achievements by individual figures, including Georgia O’Keeffe and Jacob Lawrence, are interspersed throughout the show. Icons of the collection such as Calder’s Circus and the work of Edward Hopper are featured as well as more recent acquisitions—in particular, Norman Lewis’s American Totem (1960), a painting made at the height of the civil rights movement by an under-appreciated protagonist in the story of Abstract Expressionism. Such additions demonstrate that the Whitney’s collection is a dynamic cultural resource that allows us to continually reframe the history of American life and artistic production.


This exhibition is organized by David Breslin, DeMartini Family Curator and Director of the Collection, with Margaret Kross, senior curatorial assistant, and Roxanne Smith, curatorial assistant.

large bronze gorilla

Daisy Youngblood

June 2019

Van Doren Waxter is pleased to announce new representation of American sculptor Daisy Youngblood, who since the 1970s has received critical attention for her haunting and vulnerable animal and human bodies made of low-fire clay or in cast bronze suggesting ancient cultures and eras. A John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Fellow for “creating forms that evoke the primitive, the timeless, and the universal,” Youngblood will be on view in the gallery’s presentation at the upcoming edition of Art Basel Miami Beach and a one person exhibition will take place in the future at the gallery’s 1907 townhouse.

The artist (b. 1945) is noted for a highly distinctive, affecting, and mystical body of sculpture made slowly by the hand. Youngblood began working in clay, an ancient and sensuous medium, in early childhood in North Carolina. Left alone outside at four years old, and, “finding wet red clay in a ditch,” she made a bear. This was her first animal deity and was experienced “as The Great Mother, a refuge, not something scary.” Years later, in New York during the 1970s, she would craft a sculpture from wood that she had dragged into her studio that was “curved like my backbone,” and that, for the artist, “turned into an arm holding a snake that made the sign of Saturn.”

Her striking, sensitive productions, which David Frankel, writing in Artforum asserts are “modeled with great subtlety” and “recall prehistoric cave art in their mysterious fusion of simplicity and sophistication,” draw their language from the artist’s affinity for indigenous cultures, living creatures, such as orangutans, goats, and cheetahs, and what she has said, are “visual appearances.” Animals, especially primates, regularly appear, and which require, as all of her forms do “working on them long enough to have a presence so that it feels like somebody is there.”

Youngblood’s hand modeled, spiritual forms are distinguished by the placement of found stones and wood from the dense, verdant environs of the artist’s home in the mountainous wilderness of Costa Rica. These often serve as heads, torsos, limbs, eyes, and eye sockets, which allow her to place “something heavy and solid in contrast to the lightness” of her delicate, breakable figures. Chandrika (2014), for instance, measuring 9 x 63 x 19 inches, is a reclining figure that evinces the artist’s interest in ancestors and energy—the clay, stone, and wood portrait features ancient oak found in a river near Youngblood’s home, “which is full and fast and with big boulders and clear water that comes tumbling down.”



About the artist
Daisy Youngblood was born in Asheville, North Carolina in 1945 and today lives and works in Costa Rica. She studied at The Richmond Professional Institute, Virginia. She began exhibiting in New York City in the late 1970s and has shown in the U.S. and internationally. Her work has been on view in solo exhibitions at Willard Gallery, Barbara Gladstone Gallery, and McKee Gallery (1993-2015), among others. Youngblood has been included in numerous group exhibitions, such as Figuratively Speaking (1981) at P.S. 1 in Long Island City, NY; Modern Masks (1984) at The Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY; and A Labor of Love (1996) at The New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York, NY. Youngblood is the recipient of a John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Fellowship (2003). Her work is held in many permanent collections such as The Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, TX; The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, the North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, NC; and the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, CA. Her work has been reviewed and featured in publications such as Artforum, ARTnews, Art in America, and The New York Times.

Epic Abstraction: Pollock to Herrera

Epic Abstraction: Pollock to Herrera

Hedda Sterne | The Metropolitan Museum of Art

November 28, 2018 - Ongoing

Epic Abstraction: Pollock to Herrera will begin in the 1940s and extend into the twenty-first century to explore large-scale abstract painting, sculpture, and assemblage through more than fifty works from The Met collection, a selection of loans, and promised gifts and new acquisitions. Iconic works from The Met collection, such as Jackson Pollock's classic "drip" painting Autumn Rhythm (1950) and Louise Nevelson's monumental Mrs. N's Palace (1964–77), will be shown in conversation with works by international artists, such as Japanese painter Kazuo Shiraga and the Hungarian artist Ilona Keserü. The exhibition will be punctuated with special loans of major works by Helen Frankenthaler, Carmen Herrera, Shiraga, Joan Snyder, and Cy Twombly.


In the wake of unprecedented destruction and loss of life during World War II, many painters and sculptors working in the 1940s grew to believe that traditional easel painting and figurative sculpture no longer adequately conveyed the human condition. In this context, numerous artists, including Barnett Newman, Pollock, and others associated with the so-called New York School, were convinced that abstract styles—often on a large scale—most meaningfully evoked contemporary states of being. Many of the artists represented in Epic Abstraction worked in large formats not only to explore aesthetic elements of line, color, shape, and texture but also to activate scale's metaphoric potential to evoke expansive—"epic"—ideas and subjects, including time, history, nature, the body, and existential concerns of the self.